Latin was the language spoken around the area of Rome called Latium in the 1st century BC. With the power of Rome, Latin became the dominant language in Italy and in the entire Western Roman Empire. After Pentecost, the apostles spread Christianity throughout the world. Eventually at the large centers of population such as Rome, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem and Constantinople; bishops became the leaders of the Christian faith. Each bishop had his own form of public worship (liturgy). The language of the Roman church, started as Greek but changed to Latin in the second century. The Traditional Latin Mass developed in the third century. In the sixth century, Pope St. Gregory the Great organized the Mass with writings and especially the chants used which took on his name: “Gregorian”. The Latin language began to die out in the world in the 6th century after the fall of Rome, but local Latin dialects replace it and eventually transformed into the modern Romance languages which include French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. However, Latin continued to be the language of the Church. In the 8th century, the Roman Emperor Charlemagne helped to standardize prayer books for use across the Empire. During the Protestant Revolt, abuses developed in the Latin Mass, so Pope St. Pius V prepared a Missal to regulate the Mass and the new rules were disseminated across Europe with they help of the newly invented printing press. This was just after the Council of Trent, so sometimes the traditional Latin Mass is called the “Tridentine Mass or the “Missal of St. Pius V.” The Latin Mass remained unchanged for 400 more years until the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II) of 1962 to 1965. Among the changes decreed was that the Mass was to be translated into local languages. Some Catholics were unhappy about the new Mass rules, fearing it changed too much tradition. French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre was one, and he refused to conduct the Mass in anything other than Latin. In 1976, Pope Paul VI suspended Lefebvre as an acting priest. Lefebvre defied the Pope and started his own school in Switzerland to train seminarians in the pre-Vatican II Mass. Paul VI’s successor, Pope John Paul II tried to smooth things over with Lefebvre and ended up excommunicating him in 1988 after Lefebvre ordained four bishops to continue the movement. Lefebvre died in 1991 but the traditionalist movement, although not large, continued on. Pope Benedict XVI in an apparent attempt to bring peace expanded the use of the traditional Latin Mass. He said everyone “has a place in the church.” Now after consulting with bishops from around the world, Pope Francis has concluded that Benedict’s approach has backfired